Tanks Installation

Before 1955 most of vertical cylindrical vessels were manufactured by the method of layer installation. By this method, due to the very large amount of preparatory and assembly-welding works, performed in the open air, the assembly timing depended on weather conditions, and for large parts of the territory, installation was seasonal.
Designed in 1950-1955, rolling method for manufacture and installation of structures of vertical tanks allowed transferring the bulk of the works to the plants-manufactures and thereby facilitating installation of such structures. This method has been widely spread and used in most cases, when there is a possibility to transfer rolls.
Preparation of the base for a tank bottom and production of foundations do not depend on the method of assembly, and before it starts, the layout of axes of a tank shall be specified and the surface of a waterproofing layer of an artificial tank base shall be straightened.
Waterproofing layer is thoroughly compacted. In tiled foundations, which receive negative support reactions by the internal pressure in a vessel, the soil above tiles should be thoroughly compacted in layers of 20-25 cm with watering. Anchor bolts should have reinforced anticorrosive coating.
Particular attention should be paid to the quality of vertical welds, which are under most pressure, as well as welds of a cylindrical part and a bottom, where the local pressure may arise.
Welders shall pass technological inspection on welding the samples similar to the executed work before work start regardless of their certification.

Installation of Tanks, Produced by Rolling Method
A bottom part and a wall of a vessel, produced, rolled and fastened against unrolling at the plant-manufacturer, are transported to the installation site and unrolled to the design position. Following procedures shall be observed.
Unloading of rolls from the railway platforms is executed by means of rolling or by crane.
Installation of a tank bottom is performed on the finished base with an insulating layer, the safety of which shall be ensured.
Bottom, produced in the form of one or two rolls (depending on the diameter of a tank), is successively unrolled with a sheets lap width of 30 -40 mm. In tanks with a diameter up to 28 m, both halves of the bottom are rolled into one roll.
By installing anchored vessels during the unrolling of the bottom, the projections of anchors shall be removed, which is subject to appropriate design solutions that enable securing an anchor to the buried plate.
If the crane elevating capacity exceeds the tank wall weight, a roll can be lifted and installed vertically directly to the place, where unrolling begins. If the crane elevating capacity is less than the weight of a roll, the latter shall be moved by rolling it so that after turning into a vertical position, it took the place, required for further unrolling. The turn itself is done by lifting of one end and resting of a roll against a bottom.
By installing a rolled vessel with a panel roof, a central pillar and roof panels, which fix the position of a wall during unrolling, are installed simultaneously with unrolling of a tank wall.
For tanks of a large volume, a wall is rolled into two rolls and a panel roof can have a three-point bearing.

Installation of Tanks, Produced by Layer Method
After straightening of sheets and applying lines and borders of longitudinal, and in some case, transverse laps on them, clamps and washers of different types for clamping devices, as well as the short stacks for installation of sheets and portable scaffolding are set with the help of the conductor.
Clamps are laid into the conductor opening, pressed and welded, and then the conductor is removed and moved so that its extreme opening coincided with the last clamp, and the conductor flange border matched a line on the sheet. Then the process of clamps welding is repeated. Depending on the type of connection, different tensioning devices are applied.
These operations are performed for the assembly of a bottom and a tank wall. After welding of sheets, tension devices are disassembled, clamps are cut down and the areas of their fastening are dressed.
Bottoms assembly can be conducted directly on a sandy foundation, while all sheets are joined by overlapping and welded on one side.
The inspection of the density of welds at a bottom after welding it on a sandy foundation is conducted using a vacuum technique of 100% seams. At positive temperatures the use of chemical control methods is allowed by means of creation of pressure under a bottom of at least 50 mm H2O by using mercuric nitrate reagent.
Assembling of body plates is carried out with the help of a pile driver or other mechanism with sufficient capacity.
After assembly of each two belts and elimination of the identified deviations, the horizontality of the ring lap joints is checked.
In cases when the welding of sheet joints fall behind the assembly, bracing wires are set at the fourth belt to provide rigidity. The amount of bracing wires depends on the tank diameter and is stipulated by the work production plan.
By welding of vertical seams, the outside seam is welded first and only then seams on the inside are welded too. Tension devices in seams are disassembled after welding. Girth seams are brewed after welding of vertical seams. After welding of a body banding corner, the density of a weld is tested.
Roof installation is performed in accordance with its structure (trusses, panel roofing, arch system) on a permanent or temporary mounting racks.

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2000-2012 results

Rolled Tanks – 87,000 tons
Layer Installed Tanks – 82,000 tons
Steel Structures – 77,700 tons

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